I have a couple of audiophile friends for whom ‘imaging’ is very much a secondary hi-fi goal, but I wonder if this is because they’ve never really heard it from their audio systems.
What do we mean by the term anyway? My definition would be the (illusion of) precise placement of acoustic sources in three dimensions in front of the listener – including the acoustics of the recording venue(s). It isn’t a fragile effect that only appears at one infinitesimal position in space or collapses at the merest turn of the head, either.
It is something that I am finding is trivially easy for DSP-based active speakers. Why? Well I think that it just falls out naturally from accurate matching between the channels and phase & time-corrected drivers. Logically, good imaging will only occur when everything in a system is working more-or-less correctly.
I can imagine all kinds of mismatches and errors that might occur with passive crossovers, exacerbated by the compromises that are forced on the designer such as having to use fewer drivers than ideal, or running the drivers outside their ideal frequency ranges.
Imaging is affected by the speaker’s interaction with the room, of course. The ultimate imaging accuracy may occur when we eliminate the room’s contribution completely, and sit in a very tight ‘sweet spot’, but this is not the most practical or pleasant listening situation. The room’s contribution may also enhance an illusion of a palpable image, so it is not desirable to eliminate it completely. Ultimately, we are striking a balance between direct sound and ambient reflections through speaker directivity and positioning relative to walls.
A real audiophile scientist would no doubt be interested in how exactly stereo imaging works, and whether listening tests could be devised to show the relative contributions of poor damping, phase errors, Doppler distortion, timing misalignment etc. Maybe we could design a better passive speaker as a result. But I would say: why bother? The DSP active version is objectively more correct, and now that we have finally progressed to such technology and can actually listen to it, it clearly doesn’t need to do anything but reproduce left and right correctly – no need for any other tricks or the forlorn hope of some accidental magic from natural, organic, passive technology.
An ‘excuse’ for poor imaging is that in many real musical situations, imaging is not nearly as sharp as can be obtained from a good audio system. This is true: if you go to a classical concert and consciously listen for where a solo brass instrument (for example) is coming from, you often can’t really tell. I presume this is because you are generally seated far from the stage with a lot of people in the way and much ‘ambience’ thrown in. I presume that the conductor is hearing much stronger ‘imaging’ than we are – and many recordings are made with the mics much closer than a typical person sitting in the auditorium; the sharper imaging in the recording may well be largely artificial.
However, to cite this as a reason for deliberately blurring the image in some arbitrary way is surely a red herring. The image heard by the audience member is still ‘coherent’ even if it is not sharp. And the ‘artificially imaged’ recording contains extra information that is allowing us to separate the various acoustic sources by a different mechanism than the one that might allow us to tease out the various sources in a mono recording, say. It reduces effort and vastly increases the clarity of the audio ‘scene’.
I think that good imaging due to superior time alignment and phase is going to be much more important than going to the Nth degree to obtain ultra-low low harmonic distortion.
If we mess up the coherence between the channels we are getting the worst of all worlds: something that arbitrarily munges the various acoustic sources and their surroundings in response to signal content. An observation that is sometimes made is that the music “sticks to the speakers” rather than appearing in between. What are our brains to make of it? It must increase the effort of listening and blur the detail of what we are hearing.
Not only this, but good imaging is compelling. Solid voices and instruments that float in mid air grab the attention. The listener immediately understands that there is a lot more information trapped in a stereo recording than they ever knew.