What more do we want?

As I sit here listening to some big symphonic music playing on my ‘KEF’ DSP-based active crossover stereo system, I am struck by the thought: how could it be any better?

I sometimes read columns where people wonder about the future of audio, as though continuous progress is natural and inevitable – and as though we are accustomed to such progress. But it does occur to me that there is no reason why we cannot have reached the point of practical perfection already.

I think the desire for exotic improvements over what we have now has to be seen within the context of most people having not yet heard a good stereo system. They imagine that if the system they heard was expensive, it must therefore represent the state of the art, but in audio I think they could well be wrong. Some time ago, the audio industry and enthusiasts may even have subconsciously sniffed that they were reaching a plateau and begun to stall or reverse progress just to make life more interesting for themselves.

At the science fiction level, people dream of systems that reproduce live events exactly, including the acoustics of the performance venue. Even if this were possible, would it be worth it without the corresponding visuals? (and smells, temperature, humidity, etc.?)

Something like it could probably be achieved using the techniques of the computer games industry: synthesis of the acoustics from first principles, headphones with head tracking, or maybe even some system of printed transducer array wall coverings that could create the necessary sound fields in mid-air if there was no furniture in the room (and knowing the audio industry, it would also supplement the system with some conventional subwoofers). My prediction is that you would try it a couple of times, find it a rather contrived, unnatural experience, and next time revert to your stereo system with two speakers.

On a more practical level, the increasing use of conventional DSP is predicted. We are now seeing the introduction of systems that aim to reduce the (supposedly) unwanted stereo crosstalk that occurs from stereo speakers. The idea is to send out a slightly attenuated antiphase impulse from one speaker for every impulse from the other speaker, that will cancel out the crosstalk at the ‘wrong ear’. It then needs to send out an anti-antiphase impulse from the other speaker to cancel out that impulse as it reaches the other ear, and so on. My gut instinct is that this will only work perfectly at one precise location, and at all other locations there will be ‘residue’ possibly worse than the crosstalk. In fact we don’t seem bothered by the crosstalk from ordinary stereo – I am not convinced we hear it as “colouration”. Maybe it results in a narrowing of the width of the ‘scene’, but with the benefit of increasing its stability. (Hand-waving justification of the status quo, maybe, but I have tried ambiophonic demonstrations, and I was eventually happy to go back to ordinary stereo).

Other predictions include the increasing use of automatic room correction, ultra-sophisticated tone controls and loudness profiles that allow the user to tailor every recording to their own preferences.

Tiny speakers will generate huge SPLs flat down to 20 Hz – the Devialet Phantom is the first example of this, along with the not-so-futuristic drawback of needing to burn huge amounts of energy to do it. Complete multi-channel surround envelopment will come from hidden speakers.

At the hardware fetish end, no doubt some people imagine that even higher resolution sample rates and bit depths must result in better audible quality. Some people probably think that miniaturised valves will transform the listening experience. High resolution vinyl is on the horizon. Who knows what metallurgical miracles await in the science of audio interconnects?

For the IT-oriented audiophile, what is left to do? Multi-room audio, streaming from the cloud, complete control from handheld devices are all here, to a level of sophistication and ease of use limited only by the ‘cognitive gap’ between computer people and normal human users that sometimes results in clunky user interfaces. The technology is not a limiting factor. Do you want the album artwork to dissolve as one track fades out and the new artwork to spiral in and a CGI gatefold sleeve to open as the new track fades in? The ability to talk to your device and search on artist, genre, label, composer, producer, key signature? Swipe with hand gestures like Minority Report? Trivial. There really is no limit to this sort of thing already.

In fact, for the real music lover, I don’t think there is anything left to do. Truth be told, we were most of the way there in 1968.

The basic test is: how much better do you want the experience of summoning invisible musicians to your living room to be? I can’t imagine many worthwhile improvements over what we have now. The sound achievable from a current neutral stereo system is already at ‘hologram’ level; the solidity of the phantom image is total – the speakers disappear. It isn’t a literal hologram that reproduces the acoustics in absolute terms, allowing you to walk around it, of course, but it is a plausible ‘hologram’ from any static listening position, allowing you to ‘walk around it’ in your mind, and it stays plausible as you turn your head.

It isn’t complete surround envelopment, but there is reverberation from your own room all around you, and it seems natural to sit down and face the music. You will hear fully-formed, discrete, musical parts emerging from an open, three dimensional space, with acoustics that may not be related to the space you are listening in. You have been transported to a different venue – if that is what the recording contains. In terms of volume and dynamics, a modern system can give you the same visceral dynamics as the real performance.

And all this is happening in your living room, but without any visuals of the performance – it is music that you are wanting to listen to after all. If the requirement is to experience a literal night at the opera, then short of a synthesised Star Trek type ‘holodeck’ experience you will be out of luck.

You could always watch a high resolution DVD of some performance or the BBC’s Proms programmes, for example, and such visuals may give you a different experience. They will, however, destroy the pure recreation of the acoustic space in front of you because, by necessity, the visuals jump around from location to location, scene to scene in order to maintain the interest level, and your attention will be split between the sound and the imagery. Anyway, a huge TV will cost you about £200 from Tescos these days so that aspect is pretty well covered, too.

The natural partner to a huge TV is multi-channel surround sound. Quadraphonic sound seemed like the next big thing in the 1970s, but didn’t take off at the time. We now have five or seven channel surround sound. Does this improve the musical experience? Some people say so, but that could just be the gimmick factor, or an inferior stereo system being jazzed up a bit. While the correlation between two good speakers produces an unambiguous ‘solution’ to the equations thereof, multiple sources referring to the same ‘impulse’ could result in no clear ‘solution’ – that is, a fuzzy and indistinct ‘hologram’ that our ears struggle to make sense of. Mr. Linkwitz surmises something similar in the case of the centre speaker, plus he finds it visually distracting; with just two speakers, the space between them becomes a virtual blank space in which it is easier to imagine the audio scene. Most recordings are stereo and are likely to remain that way with a large proportion of listeners using headphones. For these reasons, I am happy that stereo is the best way to carry on listening to music.

Can DSP improve the listening experience further? Hardly at all I would say. So-called ‘room correction’ cannot transform a terrible room into a great one, and it doesn’t even transform a so-so one into a slightly better one. It starts from a faulty assumption: that human hearing is just a frequency response analyser for which real acoustics (the room) are an error, rather than human hearing having a powerful acoustics interpreter at the front end. If you attempt to ‘fix’ the acoustics by changing the source you just end up with a strange-sounding source. At a pinch, the listener could listen in the near(er) field to get rid of the room, anyway.

I am convinced that the audiophile obsession with tailoring recordings to the listener’s exact requirements is a red herring: the listener doesn’t want total predictability, and a top notch system shouldn’t be messed about with. As a reviewer of the Kii Three said:

…the traditional kind of subjective analysis we speaker reviewers default to — describing the tonal balance and making a judgement about the competence of a monitor’s basic frequency response — is somehow rendered a little pointless with the Kii Three. It sounds so transparent and creates such fundamentally believable audio that thoughts of ‘dull’ or ‘bright’ seem somehow superfluous.

The user doesn’t have access to the individual elements of the recording. What can be done in terms of, say, reducing the volume of the hi-hats (or whatever) is crude and unnatural and bleeds over every other element of the recording. The only chance of reproducing a natural sound, maintaining the separation between fully-formed elements and reproducing a three dimensional ‘scene’, is for the system to be neutral. When this happens, the level of the hi-hats likely just becomes just part of the performance. Audiophiles who, without any caveat, say they want DSP tone controls in order to fiddle about with recordings have already given up on that natural sound.

In summary, I see the way music was ‘consumed’ 40 or even 50 years ago as already pretty much at the pinnacle: two large speakers at one side or end of a comfortably-furnished living room, filling the space with beautiful sound – at once combining compatibility with domestic living and the ability to summon musicians to perform in the space in a comprehensible form that one or several people can enjoy without having to don special apparatus or sit in a super-critical location. And the fitted carpets of those times were great for the acoustics!

All that has happened in the meantime is just the ‘mopping up’ of the remaining niggles. We (can) now have better performance with respect to distortion, frequency response, dynamic range, and a more solid, holographic audio ‘scene’; no scratches and pops; instant selection of our choice of the world’s total music library. The incentives for the music lover to want anything more than this are surely extremely limited.

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Vinyl worship at the extreme

Hats off to the people who thought of this wheeze:

…a £6,300 lacquer of Sarah Vaughan that only survives one play

Yes, it’s a recording on a lacquer-coated aluminium disc, such as is used in the manufacture of LPs. It’s soft, and if it is played it is destroyed in the process. You can buy one of a limited edition of thirty for £6,300, to be played just once. And if you like Sarah Vaughan that would be a bonus.

Presumably the idea is that it gets you one step closer to the original musical event.

But not so fast. This one is derived from a digital transfer. And not just a straight transfer. They digitise the original live recording tapes and then do a bunch of signal processing, explicitly removing some of the original event in the process.

Once the signal is digitised, it’s treated using processing algorithms to try and reduce residual noise – a process that isn’t always easy. While the tapes were in good condition, the Peterson performance proved the most difficult. The tapes hadn’t been opened since 1962, and had much more analog noise than the others.

D’Oria-Nicolas also told us how, in the Evans’ recording, “the drums were too close to the piano and some frequencies did make some drum skins vibrate… We successfully managed to delete that.”

Obviously, the closest you can get to the original event is by playing the analogue tapes, and a straight digital transfer of these will be indistinguishable from the tape. Noise, drop-outs and all.

‘Photoshopping’ is the next stage, and you can actually download the photoshopped version and listen to it. Digital cleaning-up of scratched, dusty images can be a very positive thing, and the audio equivalent may be too. This version may, or may not need some further manipulation in order to cut the lacquer master on a lathe, plus it needs filtering for RIAA equalisation.

As I understand it, in the LP process (which I view with affection, rather like any other ‘heritage’ industry such as keeping steam trains going), the lacquer is then coated in metal and the two layers separated to produce a metal negative of the lacquer disc. This is then coated in metal and the two layers separated to produce a metal positive copy of the lacquer. This is then coated in metal and the two layers separated to produce a negative: the stamper. Multiple stampers are produced – stampers wear out. The stampers are then used to press blobs of hot vinyl to produce the final LPs! It is amazing to me that it works so well.

You can then play the vinyl record using a tiny stylus, a cantilever, and a coil/magnet arrangement to produce a tiny voltage. This is amplified and filtered with the reverse RIAA curve before sending it via the volume control to the power amp and speakers.

A vinyl record is quite a long way from the original event!

In this case, the earliest point in the chain that we have access to is the processed digital file. This is regarded by audiophiles as the poor man’s version of the recording. We pay extra (a lot extra) to listen to the output of the next stage – the self-destructing lacquer. Or, for somewhat less, we can buy the result at the end of the chain: the standard vinyl LP.

Obviously, the people behind this scheme understand exactly what they are doing, and have a good sense of humour. But it does highlight a particular audiophile belief, I think: that music – even the devil’s own digital music – can be purified and cleansed if it is passed through ‘heritage’ technology built by craftsmen and artisans.

The rational person might assume that the earlier in the chain you go should give you the best quality, but audiophiles will pay more – much more – to hear the music passed through extra layers of sanctified materials, such as wood, oil, cellulose, varnish, bakelite, animal glue, silver wire, diamond, waxed paper and plastic vinyl.

Beolab 50, Home HiFi Show 2017

For the first time in a while I have been to a hi fi show, this time in Harrogate, North Yorkshire. It was arranged by the forum HiFi Wigwam, and there were both commercial and amateur exhibitors. It was fairly low key: not all that many exhibitors and not too many visitors on the day I was there (Saturday). I liked the venue, The Old Swan Hotel.

IMG_2186

My main reason for going was to hear the Bang and Olufsen Beolab 90s, but those weren’t there. Instead the Beolab 50s were being demonstrated in a very large room as shown above. There was a technical problem: they couldn’t change the settings for the speakers because of wi fi issues – it can only be done from a phone app (I think) and it needs to find the speakers on the network. So they were stuck on a fairly omni-directional setting and I could really hear this: I desperately needed them to be more focused. But anyway, very generously, the sales guy allowed me to play tracks off a memory stick I had brought, and gave me control of the volume.

My impression was of a beautifully clean, effortless sound, and incredible bass, but the setup was just ‘not right’ and everything sounded too diffuse and distant. Nevertheless, I enjoyed playing some good demo tracks and it was easy to hear that these speakers are not troubled by high volume levels – although I didn’t get anywhere near the volume they normally run demos at!

I must try to get a demo when they are set up properly – I expect great things from them. (I feel a bit of a fraud though, because at over £20,000 I won’t be buying them!).

My friend was very impressed by the looks of these speakers: solid-looking aluminium, fine wooden grilles, and a tweeter ‘pod’ that disappears when the speakers are inactive. In fact, he was very taken by the whole B&O ‘ethos’. Even the remote control for the system was a work of art, being made from a single piece of aluminium. And B&O do the best brochures of any hi-fi company, I think!

In the rest of the show, we heard some enormous horn speakers – I am not a fan, KEF LS50 wireless, some BBC-style LS5/9, some early Harbeths, some Focal speakers, some tiny actives based on balanced mode radiators, and quite a few others. There were various vintage components from the 1970s onwards. My friend was quite taken with the sound of some very classic-looking Tannoys with concentric tweeters, and anything that sounded good on a lower budget – I don’t have the brochure to hand, but may fill in some more details later.

Valves were on show of course, a few turntables, some outrageously inefficient Class A solid state amplifiers, and some active crossovers. In some setups, vinyl sounded OK, but because of the pops and clicks I often found myself wishing for digital sources!

There were the usual vinyl stalls, cables and accessories at eye watering prices, an interesting exhibition of photos of pop stars from the 60s and a great jukebox.

Acoustics-wise, the standard rooms were quite good, I thought, having higher ceilings than some other places.

The Trouble with Hobbies

Have you ever suddenly been inspired to embark on a brand new hobby?

Maybe you’ve never owned a boat before, but having seen one chug by on the river you have thought “I’d love to do that!”. A quick browse in the classified ads shows lots of boats that look fine, and they don’t cost all that much. Basically any boat would be great, and you could gradually do it up, even if it is a bit shabby now. In your mind’s eye, your family will love you when you are able to take them on spur-of-the-moment, cheap weekends messing about on the water, starting in a few weeks’ time.

From this high point where the world is your oyster, you begin to take the advice of the magazines and other experienced hobbyists. Before you have even owned a boat, you become aware of the hierarchy of boat owners, and the boats that would render you a laughing stock if you owned them. You become aware of the general consensus on different types of bilge pump – not something you ever wanted to know. You begin to form an idea of the boat you should really go for – and it is not one of the bargain basement jobs you first saw. You might just about be able to stretch to a boat that would put you in the lower echelons of boat ownership but, importantly, not on the very lowest rung. You could always, perhaps, move up from there over time.

It now turns into an all-consuming hobby with the goal of having a boat on the river at the end of the year. In the end it costs thousands, and your children have grown up and left home before your boat finally takes to the water. You hit a bridge and rip the top off your boat the first time you take it out. You feel sick and abandon the whole hobby (a true story).

That’s the nature of male hobbies. They start out as wonderful, spontaneous ideas, but can turn into nightmares – mainly due to the existence of other hobbyists! Audio is one of those hobbies, I think. Ridiculously, the prices paid for bits of audio knickknackery rival the costs of boats.

A person could be seized one day by the idea of hi-fi as a way to improve their life, buy an amp and some secondhand speakers off Gumtree for £100, and plug their tablet or laptop headphone socket into the amp using a £2 cable. Hey presto, a hi-fi system that will sound much better than what they had before, and which has tinker-ability via the buying and selling of speakers and the audio streaming/library software options; there is no urgency in changing the amp and tablet hardware as they are pretty much perfect in what they do. The speakers are almost like pieces of furniture, so the person can indulge their tastes in how they look as well as how they sound, and they can be restored using standard DIY skills – a nice mini-hobby.

But what if the person does the natural male thing, and starts to read the magazines and forums? Immediately they will realise that their tablet’s headphone output is a joke in the audio world. They need to spend at least a few hundred pounds on a half-decent ‘DAC’, plus a couple of hundred on a budget cable. And of course, this is only for convenience: real audio quality can only be had if they own a decent turntable and a special vibration-free shelf to put it on. Where do they go from there? They need to make a decision on which turntable and which cartridge to go for. They need to take a view on cables, power conditioners, valve or solid state amps, accessories like cable lifters and record cleaning machines. Each decision, they are assured by their fellow hobbyists, will result in “night and day” differences in the sound.

After some months agonising over it, they assemble a beginner’s system for about £3,000 – they will upgrade as budget allows. It sounds OK, but they know that even though the brand is a highly recommended one, the particular model of valve amplifier they could afford has “hints of a slightly reticent mid range” – one of the magazines said so – and if they listen carefully, perhaps they can hear that… But the more powerful 18 Watt model cost £800 more and they decided against it. Perhaps they made the wrong decision. The nightmare unfolds…

The Secret Life of the Signal

Some people actually think of stereo imaging as a “parlour trick” that is very low on the list of desirable attributes that an audio system should have. They ‘rationalise’ this by saying that in the majority of recordings, any stereo image is an artificial illusion, created by the recording engineer either deliberately or by accident; it does not accurately represent the live event – because there may not even have been a single live event. So how can it matter if it is reproduced by the playback system or not? Perhaps it is even best to suppress it: muddle it up with some inter-channel crosstalk like vinyl does, or even listen in mono.

At the top of the list of desirable attributes for a hi-fi system, most audiophiles would put “timbre”, “tonality”, low distortion, clean reproduction at high volumes, dynamics, deep bass. All of these qualities can be experienced with a mono signal and a single speaker – in fact in the Harman Corporation’s training for listening, monophonic reproduction is recommended for when performing listening tests.

Because their effects are not so obvious in mono, phase and timing are regarded by many as supremely unimportant. I quote one industry luminary:

Time domain does not enter my vocabulary…

Sound is colour?

We know that our eyes respond to detail and colour in different ways. In the early days of colour TV (analogue) it was found that the signal could be broadcast within practical bandwidths because the colour (chrominance) information could be be sent at lower resolution than the detail (luminance).

There is, perhaps, a parallel in hearing, too: that humans have separate mechanisms for responding to sound in the frequency and time domains. But the conventional hi-fi industry’s implicit view is that we only hear in the frequency domain: all the main measurements are in the frequency domain, and steady state signals are regarded as equivalent to real music. A speaker’s overall response to phase and timing is ignored almost totally or, at best, regarded as a secondary issue.

I think that this is symptomatic of an idea that pervades hi-fi: that the signal is ‘colour’. Sure, it varies as the music is playing, but the exact nature of that variation is almost incidental; secondary in comparison to the importance of the accurate reproduction of colour, and that in testing, all that matters is whether a uniform colour is accurately reproduced.

There has, nevertheless, been some belated lip service paid to the importance of timing, with the hype around MQA (still usually being played over speakers with huge timing errors!), and a number of passive speakers with sloping front baffles for time alignment. Taken to its logical conclusion, we have these:

wilson_wamm_master_chronosonic_final_prototype_news_oct

Their creator says, though:

It’s nice if you have phase coherence, but it is not necessary

So they still fall short of the “straight wire with gain” ideal. It still says that the signal is something we can take liberties with, not aspiring to absolute accuracy in the detail as long as we get a good neutral white and a deep black, and all uniform (‘steady state’) colours reproduced with the correct shading. It says that we understand the signal and it is trivial. Time alignment by moving the drivers backwards and forwards is an easy gimmick, so we can go that far, however.

Another Dimension

I think that with DSP-corrected drivers and crossovers, we are beginning to find that there is another dimension to the common or garden stereo signal; one that has been viewed as a secondary effect until now. Whether created accidentally or not, the majority of recordings contain ‘imaging’ that is so clear that it gives us access to the music in a way we were not aware of. It allows us to ‘walk around’ the scene in which the recording was made. If it is a composite, multitrack recording, it may not be a real scene that ever existed, but the individual elements are each small scenes in themselves, and they become clearly delineated. It is ‘compelling’.

I can do no better than quote a brand new review of the Kii Three written by a professional audio engineer, that echoes something I was saying a couple of weeks ago: imaging is not just a ‘trick’, but improves the separation of the acoustic sources in a way that goes beyond the traditional attributes of low distortion & colouration.

I think he also echoes something I said about believable imaging giving the speaker a ‘free pass’ in terms of measurements. As in my DIY post, he says that the speaker sounds so transparent and believable that there is no point in going any further in criticising the sound. A suggestion, perhaps, that conventional ‘in-room’ measurements and ‘room correction’, are shown up as the red herrings they are if a system sets out to be genuinely neutral by design, at source.

Firstly, the traditional kind of subjective analysis we speaker reviewers default to — describing the tonal balance and making a judgement about the competence of a monitor’s basic frequency response — is somehow rendered a little pointless with the Kii Three. It sounds so transparent and creates such fundamentally believable audio that thoughts of ‘dull’ or ‘bright’ seem somehow superfluous.

… it is dominated by such a sense of realistic clarity, imaging, dynamics and detail that you begin almost to forget that there’s a speaker between you and the music.

…I’ve never heard anything anywhere near as adept at separating the elements of a mix and revealing exactly what is going on. I found myself endlessly fascinated, in particular, by the way the Kii Three presents vocals within a mix and ruthlessly reveals how good the performance was and how the voice was subsequently treated (or mistreated). Performance idiosyncrasies, microphone character, room sound, compression effects, reverb and delay techniques and pitch-correction artifacts that I’d never noticed before became blindingly obvious — it was addictive.

…One of the joys of auditioning new audio gear, especially speakers, is that I occasionally get to rediscover CDs or mixes that I thought I knew intimately. I can honestly say that with the Kii Three, every time I played some old familiar material I heard something significant in the way it performs…

…Low-latency mode …switch[es] off the system phase correction. It makes for a fascinating listening experience. …the change of phase response is clearly audible. The monitor loses a little of its imaging ability and overall precision in low-latency mode so that things sound a little less ‘together’.

“The Kii Three is one of the finest speakers I’ve ever heard and undoubtedly the best I’ve ever had the privilege and pleasure of using in my own home.”

Vinyl sales overtake digital

vinyl

It seems that a milestone was passed last week when UK vinyl sales hit £2.5m versus digital’s £2.1m. Vinyl has enjoyed eight straight years of growth.

It’s no skin off my nose, except where new recordings begin to be produced primarily with the vinyl release in mind. This is where dynamics are reduced, bass and treble attenuated, and stereo effects restricted while the recording is being made, rather than a special post-processed master being made for vinyl. We digital listeners are then forced to listen to the less dynamic version as well.

I just had a quick look to see if I could find an actual ‘Top Tips for Mastering Vinyl’ example for the above. The first site I looked at contained this:

Mastering for Vinyl

…For minimalist recordings, you want to try and minimize large phase differences between channels… This means that spaced omnis are really not such a good idea if you can avoid them.

If you can’t avoid them, try and put loud bass sources in the center of the soundstage, as close to the center mic as possible. Even if you are using coincident miking, this is a good idea.

In other words, once vinyl becomes a major consideration, actual recording techniques are dictated by the medium. In the example above, it is not crazy studio effects that are being limited, but the microphone placement used in minimalist recordings that you might have thought were not a problem.

Pop and click remover, old electronics magazines

Just saw a short article about a new product that aims to remove the pops and clicks from vinyl records. It…

…digitizes the signal at 192/24 bit resolution and then uses a “non-destructive” real time program that removes pops and clicks without, the company claims, damaging the music.

…In addition to real-time, non-destructive click & pop Removal the SC-1 features user controllable click & pop removal “strength”, a pushbutton audiophile-grade “bypass” that lets you hear non-digitized versus digitized signal (for when you don’t need pop and click removal), iOS and Android mobile app control and 192/24 bit hi-res digital processing.

Of course it is highly ironic that a vinyl enthusiast should need the services of the digital world to improve the sound of his recordings. And it is obvious (surely) that the digital stream could be stored for later replay without needing to further degrade the original vinyl or wear out the multi-thousand dollar stylus that is no doubt being used. (Omitting to mention the most obvious idea of just listening to a digital recording…)

The aim of the product reminded me of a certain project in an old electronics magazine, a huge number of which I still have in a set of bookshelves that I haven’t touched since 1990 – the date of the last magazine I seem to have bought. Sifting through them, it is amazing how familiar the front covers still are –  a measure of the intensity of youthful hobbies.

click-eliminator-2

From Electronics Today International in April 1979, the project I remembered was a ‘Click Eliminator’ for vinyl records based on an analogue CCD delay line. The idea was to insert a few milliseconds of silence in place of the offensive click. Here’s how it worked:

click-eliminator1

Electronics Today International was the magazine I would go to WH Smiths for on a Saturday, being terribly disappointed if the latest issue wasn’t in. I would say more than 50% of issues featured an audio or hi-fi project: from 1982 an active speaker project for example, or from 1986 “Can Valves make a comeback?” with an accompanying valve amp project. There were any number of MOSFET amps, phono pre-amps, tape noise reduction units. Electronic music featured prominently with projects for effects pedals and synthesisers galore. I devoured this stuff.

Other magazines included: Practical Electronics, Wireless World, Everyday Electronics, Elektor, Electronics and Music Maker, and one I didn’t recall Hobby Electronics. I also bought any number of computer magazines. I have never thrown any away, so I have hundreds of them gathering dust.

Vinyl in Space

jack white

Jack White aims to play the first vinyl record in space.

From The Guardian:

With the aid of a ‘space-proof’ turntable and high-altitude balloon, the singer’s Third Man Records will try to beam Carl Sagan’s A Glorious Dawn from orbit…

The Guardian link writers came up with

The Vinyl Frontier

Now that’s quite good…!

Vinyl just “for decor”

Maybe you suspected it all along, but an article in the Daily Telegraph suggests that 48% of vinyl albums haven’t been played one month after purchase, and that 7% of vinyl purchasers don’t even own a turntable.

Student Jordan Katende told the BBC: “I have vinyls in my room but it’s more for decor. I don’t actually play them. It gives me the old-school vibe. That’s what vinyl’s all about.”